Delirium Bibliography

Delirium Bibliography books graphicWhat is the Delirium Bibliography? The searchable Delirium Bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics. The NIDUS team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!

How to Search for Articles: Search by author, title, year, and/or keywords. Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases. Click on the title of the article to read the abstract, journal, etc.

Reference Information

Understanding the association between pain and delirium in older hospital inpatients: systematic review and meta-analysis
White, N. Bazo-Alvarez, J. C. Koopmans, M. West, E. Sampson, E. L.
Age Ageing

OBJECTIVE: Delirium and pain are common in older adults admitted to hospital. The relationship between these is unclear, but clinically important. We aimed to systematically review the association between pain (at rest, movement, pain severity) and delirium in this population. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science were searched (January 1982-November 2022) for Medical Subject Heading terms and synonyms (‘Pain’, ‘Analgesic’, ‘Delirium’). Study eligibility: (1) validated pain measure as exposure, (2) validated delirium tool as an outcome; participant eligibility: (1) medical or surgical (planned/unplanned) inpatients, (2) admission length ≥ 48 h and (3) median cohort age over 65 years. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. We collected/calculated odds ratios (ORs) for categorical data and standard mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data and conducted multi-level random-intercepts meta-regression models. This review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO [18/5/2020] (CRD42020181346). RESULTS: Thirty studies were selected: 14 reported categorical data; 16 reported continuous data. Delirium prevalence ranged from 2.2 to 55%. In the multi-level analysis, pain at rest (OR 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.30), movement (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.66-2.56), pain categorised as ‘severe’ (OR 3.42; 95% CI 2.09-5.59) and increased pain severity when measured continuously (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.08-0.59) were associated with an increased delirium risk. There was substantial heterogeneity in both categorical (I2 = 0%-77%) and continuous analyses (I2 = 85%). CONCLUSION: An increase in pain was associated with a higher risk of developing delirium. Adequate pain management with appropriate analgesia may reduce incidence and severity of delirium.


PMID: 38610062

PMCID: PMC11014791


Pain Management
general hospitals
older people
systematic review


Total Records Found: 6050, showing 100 per page
Preoperative electroencephalographic alpha-power changes with eyes opening are associated with postoperative attention impairment and inattention-related delirium severity Acker, L. Wong, M. K. Wright, M. C. Reese, M. Giattino, C. M. Roberts, K. C. Au, S. Colon-Emeric, C. Lipsitz, L. A. Devinney, M. J. Browndyke, J. Eleswarpu, S. Moretti, E. Whitson, H. E. Berger, M. Woldorff, M. G. Br J Anaesth 2024

Humans, Electroencephalography, Cognitive Dysfunction, Cognition, Emergence, Delirium/diagnosis, Attention, Postoperative Complications/diagnosis, alpha attenuation, delirium, eyes opening, postoperative delirium

Ketofol versus Dexmedetomidine for preventing postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing intestinal obstruction surgeries: a randomized controlled study Abd Ellatif, S. E. Mowafy, S. M. S. Shahin, M. A. BMC Anesthesiol 2024

Humans, Aged, Emergence Delirium/epidemiology/prevention & control, Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use, Prospective Studies, Propofol, Postoperative Complications/epidemiology/prevention & control/chemically induced, Double-Blind Method, Dexmedetomidine, Elderly patients, Intestinal obstruction surgeries, Ketofol, Postoperative delirium

Delirium is associated with loss of feedback cortical connectivity Gjini, K. Casey, C. Kunkel, D. Her, M. Banks, M. I. Pearce, R. A. Lennertz, R. Sanders, R. D. Alzheimers Dement 2024

Humans, Feedback, Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology, Electroencephalography, Inflammation, Delirium
Acoustic Stimulation/methods, auditory roving oddball paradigm, delirium
dynamic causal modeling, event-related potentials
evoked response potentials, high-density electroencephalogram, mismatch negativity, postoperative delirium, predictive coding framework

Impact of delirium on acute stroke outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Gong, X. Jin, S. Zhou, Y. Lai, L. Wang, W. Neurol Sci 2024

Acute stroke, Encephalopathy, Functional outcomes, Hospital admission, Mortality, Post-stroke delirium, Readmission rate

The prognostic validity of delirium severity as measured by Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOS scale) on adverse outcomes Gray, E. A. Ranasinghe, C. Lin, H. S. Australas J Ageing 2024

confusion, delirium, frailty, morbidity, prognosis

The Relationship Between Uncertainty and Psychological Distress Among Family Caregivers of Patients With Delirium in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-Sectional Survey Haji Assa, A. Cao, X. Boehm, L. M. Umberger, R. A. Carter, M. A. Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2024

Adult, Humans, Caregivers, Cross-Sectional Studies, Uncertainty, Intensive Care Units, Family/psychology, Psychological Distress, Delirium, Stress, Psychological

The Relationship Between Uncertainty and Psychological Distress Among Family Caregivers of Patients With Delirium in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-Sectional Survey Haji Assa, A. Cao, X. Boehm, L. M. Umberger, R. A. Carter, M. A. Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2024

Adult, Humans, Caregivers, Cross-Sectional Studies, Uncertainty, Intensive Care Units, Family/psychology, Psychological Distress Delirium, Stress, Psychological

Effects of liposomal bupivacaine in preoperative fascia iliac block on postoperative pain and delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery: a study protocol for a randomised, parallel controlled prospective clinical study Hao, Y. Li, W. Zheng, M. Li, X. Wu, X. Yu, Z. Liu, S. Li, J. Xu, H. BMJ Open 2024

Aged, Humans, Prospective Studies, China, Hip Fractures/surgery
Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy/prevention & control, Anesthetics,, Local/therapeutic use, Bupivacaine/therapeutic use, Delirium/etiology/prevention & control, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Anaesthetics, Hip, Neurology

Delirium Prevention in Early Rehabilitation During Acute Hospitalization and Implementation of Programs Specifically Tailored to Older Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Scoping Review with Meta-Analysis Hauer, K. Dutzi, I. Werner, C. Bauer, J. Ullrich, P. J Alzheimers Dis 2024

Humans, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Delirium/prevention & control/epidemiology
Hospitalization, Cognitive Dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, delirium, dementia, early rehabilitation, prevention, scoping review, vascular dementia

Association Between Preoperative Long-Term Poor Sleep Quality and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Multi-Center Observational Study Huang, Z. Huang, C. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Shi, L. Am Surg 2024

Postoperative delirium, cardiac surgery, elderly patients, preoperative sleep quality, sleep disorders

Ishibashi, Y. Sogawa, R. Ogata, K. Matsuoka, A. Yamada, H. Murakawa-Hirachi, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Monji, A. Shimanoe, C. Association Between Antidiabetic Drugs and Delirium: A Study Based on the Adverse Drug Event Reporting Database in Japan Clin Drug Investig 2024

Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects, Japan/epidemiology, Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced/drug therapy/epidemiology, Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions, Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects, Insulin, Delirium/chemically induced/epidemiology, Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems

Gene networks for use in metabolomic data analysis of blood plasma from patients with postoperative delirium Ivanisenko, V. A. Basov, N. V. Makarova, A. A. Venzel, A. S. Rogachev, A. D. Demenkov, P. S. Ivanisenko, T. V. Kleshchev, M. A. Gaisler, E. V. Moroz, G. B. Plesko, V. V. Sotnikova, Y. S. Patrushev, Y. V. Lomivorotov, V. V. Kolchanov, N. A. Pokrovsky, A. G Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2023

ANDSystem, Lc-ms/ms, biomarkers, cardiac surgery, gene networks, lipidomics, metabolomics, postoperative delirium, sphingolipids

Serum neurofilament light and postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery: a preplanned secondary analysis of a prospective observational study Khalifa, C. Robert, A. Cappe, M. Lemaire, G. Tircoveanu, R. Dehon, V. Ivanoiu, A. Piérard, S. de Kerchove, L. Jacobs Sariyar, A. Teunissen, C. E. Momeni, M. Anesthesiology 2024

delirium, postoperative, cognitive function, serum neurofilament, cardiac surgery

Differential effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on frontal intraoperative electroencephalogram dynamics associated with postoperative delirium Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, S. Kim, K. N. Ha, Y. Yi, S. Shin, D. A. Kuh, S. U. Lee, C. K. Koo, B. N. Kim, S. E. J Clin Anesth 2024

Humans, Aged, Sevoflurane/adverse effects, Desflurane/adverse effects, Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects, Emergence Delirium/chemically induced, Isoflurane/adverse effects, Methyl Ethers/adverse effects, Electroencephalography, Delirium, Desflurane, Electroencephalogram, Prefrontal connectivity, Sevoflurane

Machine learning methods for developing a predictive model of the incidence of delirium in cardiac intensive care units Ko, R. E. Lee, J. Kim, S. Ahn, J. H. Na, S. J. Yang, J. H. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2024

Cardiac intensive care unit, Delirium prediction, Machine learning, Risk model

Target flow deviations on the cardiopulmonary bypass cause postoperative delirium in cardiothoracic surgery-a retrospective study evaluating temporal fluctuations of perfusion data Krefting, J. Gorki, H. Hoenicka, M. Albrecht, G. Kraft, R. Liebold, A. Interdiscip Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2024

Algorithm-based data processing, Cardiac surgery, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Postoperative delirium, Target flow deviations

Comparative evaluation of intraoperative dexmedetomidine versus lidocaine for reducing postoperative cognitive decline in the elderly: a prospective randomized controlled trial Kurup, M. T. Sarkar, S. Verma, R. Bhatia, R. Khanna, P. Maitra, S. Anand, R. Ray, B. R. Singh, A. K. Deepak, K. K. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2023

Aged, Humans, Anesthetics, Inhalation, Delirium, Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6, Lidocaine/therapeutic use, Postoperative Cognitive Complications/prevention & control, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology/prevention & control, Prospective Studies, Middle,, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, dexmedetomidine, elderly, lidocaine, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, abdominal surgery

The effectiveness of preoperative delirium prevention in intermediate to high-risk older surgical patients: A systematic review Lay, N. Foley, P. Allen, J. J Clin Nurs 2024

older adults, older surgical patients, preoperative delirium prevention, systematic review

Predictive Value of the Duke Anesthesia Resistance Scale in Postoperative Delirium among Elderly Patients with Hip Fractures Lei, Z. Zhang, L. Yang, J. Ye, L. Xia, L. Altern Ther Health Med 2024

postoperative delirium, elderly, hip fracture, anesthesia resistance, delirium

A machine learning-based prediction model for postoperative delirium in cardiac valve surgery using electronic health records Li, Q. Li, J. Chen, J. Zhao, X. Zhuang, J. Zhong, G. Song, Y. Lei, L. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium, Electronic Health Records, Bayes Theorem, Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Heart Valves, Machine Learning, Cardiac valve surgery, Postoperative delirium, Prediction model, Random Forest Classifier

Promising Effects of Montelukast for Critically Ill Asthma Patients via a Reduction in Delirium Li, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, S. Yang, G. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2024

critical illness, delirium, leukotriene, montelukast

Is there a difference between preoperative and postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients?: A retrospective case control study Lim, C. Roh, Y. H. Park, Y. G. Lee, J. Nam, K. W. Medicine (Baltimore) 2024

Aged, Humans, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Case-Control Studies, Hip Fractures/complications/surgery, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology, Risk Factors

Effect of esketamine on postoperative analgesia and postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery Liu, J. Wang, T. Song, J. Cao, L. BMC Anesthesiol 2024

Humans, Aged, Sufentanil, Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy/chemically induced, Emergence Delirium/drug therapy, Digestive System Surgical Procedures, Interleukin-6, Analgesia, Patient-Controlled, Anti-Inflammatory, Agents/therapeutic use, Analgesics, Opioid, Ketamine, Anti-inflammatory, Esketamine, Postoperative analgesia, Postoperative delirium

Association between human blood metabolome and the risk of delirium: a Mendelian Randomization study Long, C. Lin, D. Zhang, L. Lin, Y. Yao, Q. Zhang, G. Li, L. Liu, H. Ying, J. Wang, X. Hua, F. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023

Humans, Aged, Cholesterol, LDL, Risk Factors, Mendelian Randomization, Analysis/methods, Genome-Wide Association Study/methods, Sphingomyelins, Delirium/genetics, Mendelian Randomization, delirium, genome-wide association study, metabolites, phenotype-wide study

Association of postoperative delirium with serum and cerebrospinal fluid proteomic profiles: a prospective cohort study in older hip fracture patients Lozano-Vicario, L. Muñoz-Vázquez Á, J. Ramírez-Vélez, R. Galbete-Jiménez, A. Fernández-Irigoyen, J. Santamaría, E. Cedeno-Veloz, B. A. Zambom-Ferraresi, F. Van Munster, B. C. Ortiz-Gómez, J. R. Hidalgo-Ovejero Á, M. Romero-Ortuno, R. Izquierdo, Geroscience 2024

Biomarkers, Cxcl9, Cognitive impairment, Delirium, Hip fracture, Neuroinflammation

Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis Lu, S. Jiang, Y. Meng, F. Xie, X. Wang, D. Su, Y. J Cardiothorac Surg 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium, Risk Factors, Aortic Dissection/surgery, Renal Insufficiency, Azides, Deoxyglucose/*analogs & derivatives, Aortic dissection, Delirium, Meta-analysis, Risk factor

Exploring patients' and families' preferences for auditory stimulation in ICU delirium prevention: A qualitative study Ma, Y. Cui, N. Guo, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2024

critical care, Delirium, Intensive care units, Qualitative research

Development of Machine Learning Prediction Models for Self-Extubation After Delirium Using Emergency Department Data Matsumoto, K. Nohara, Y. Sakaguchi, M. Takayama, Y. Yamashita, T. Soejima, H. Nakashima, N. Stud Health Technol Inform 2024

Humans, Airway Extubation, Emergency Service, Hospital, Machine Learning, Restraint, Physical, Delirium/diagnosis, delirium, self-extubation after delirium

Risk factors, preventive interventions, overlapping symptoms, and clinical measures of delirium in elderly patients Mei, X. Liu, Y. H. Han, Y. Q. Zheng, C. Y. World J Psychiatry 2023

Clinical practice, delirium, Preventive interventions, Research progress, Review, Risk factors

Preoperative prognostic nutritional index value as a predictive factor for postoperative delirium in older adult patients with hip fractures: a secondary analysis Mi, X. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Liu, K. Liu, T. Han, D. Yang, N. Wang, G. Guo, X. Yuan, Y. Li, Z. BMC Geriatr 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutrition Assessment, Emergence Delirium, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Cohort Studies, Postoperative Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Hip Fractures/complications/epidemiology/surgery, Risk Factors, Hip fracture, Nutritional status, Older adult patients, Postoperative delirium, Prognostic nutritional index

Long-term outcomes with haloperidol versus placebo in acutely admitted adult ICU patients with delirium Mortensen, C. B. Andersen-Ranberg, N. C. Poulsen, L. M. Granholm, A. Rasmussen, B. S. Kjær, M. N. Lange, T. Ebdrup, B. H. Collet, M. O. Andreasen, A. S. Bestle, M. H. Uslu, B. Pedersen, H. S. Nielsen, L. G. Hästbacka, J. Jensen, T. B. Damgaard, K. Somme Intensive Care Med 2024

Adult, Humans, Delirium/drug therapy, Haloperidol/therapeutic use, Hospitalization, Intensive Care Units, Quality of Life
Delirium, Health-related quality of life, Icu, Long-term outcomes, Mortality, Treatment

Association of sleep quality on the night of operative day with postoperative delirium in elderly patients: A prospective cohort study Ou-Yang, C. L. Ma, L. B. Wu, X. D. Ma, Y. L. Liu, Y. H. Tong, L. Li, H. Lou, J. S. Cao, J. B. Mi, W. D. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2024

Aged, Humans, Male, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiovascular Infections/complications, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Emergence Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Postoperative, Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sleep Quality, Stroke, Female

Multicentre implementation of a quality improvement initiative to reduce delirium in adult intensive care units: An interrupted time series analysis Owen, V. S. Sinnadurai, S. Morrissey, J. Colaco, H. Wickson, P. Dyjur, D. Redlich, M. O'Neill, B. Zygun, D. A. Doig, C. J. Harris, J. Zuege, D. J. Stelfox, H. T. Faris, P. D. Fiest, K. M. Niven, D. J. J Crit Care 2024

Critical care, Delirium, Implementation science, Interrupted time series analysis, Patient care bundles

Preoperative mild cognitive impairment as a risk factor of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery Park, S. Kim, J. Ha, Y. Kim, K. N. Yi, S. Koo, B. N. Front Aging Neurosci 2024

aged, cognitive dysfunction, delirium, neurocognitive disorders, perioperative care, postoperative cognitive complications

Association of preoperative blood glucose level with delirium after non-cardiac surgery in diabetic patients Park, S. J. Oh, A. R. Lee, J. H. Yang, K. Park, J. Korean J Anesthesiol 2024

Acute hyperglycemia, Chronic hyperglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Mortality, Non-cardiac surgery, Postoperative delirium

Delirium detection tools show varying completion rates and positive score rates when used at scale in routine practice in general hospital settings: A systematic review Penfold, R. S. Squires, C. Angus, A. Shenkin, S. D. Ibitoye, T. Tieges, Z. Neufeld, K. J. Avelino-Silva, T. J. Davis, D. Anand, A. Duckworth, A. D. Guthrie, B. MacLullich, A. M. J. J Am Geriatr Soc 2024

delirium, detection, geriatric assessment, hospitals, older people, routine data, systematic review

EEG biomarkers from anesthesia induction to identify vulnerable patients at risk for postoperative delirium Pollak, M. Leroy, S. Röhr, V. Brown, E. N. Spies, C. Koch, S. Anesthesiology 2024

delirium, EEG, anesthesia, postoperative delirium, propofol

The prognosis of delirium in older outpatients Quispel-Aggenbach, D. W. Zuidema, S. U. Luijendijk, H. J. Psychogeriatrics 2024

delirium, elderly, older patient, prevalence, prognosis, risk factors

Association of Postoperative Delirium With Incident Dementia and Graft Outcomes Among Kidney Transplant Recipients Ruck, J. M. Chu, N. M. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, Y. Mathur, A. Carlson, M. C. Crews, D. C. Chodosh, J. Segev, D. L. McAdams-DeMarco, M. Transplantation 2024

Humans, United States/epidemiology, Aged, Middle Aged, Kidney, Transplantation/adverse effects, Emergence Delirium/complications, Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis/surgery/complications, Risk Factors, Transplant Recipients, Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Graft Survival

Irreversible postoperative cognitive impairment after unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment in the elderly Sakurada, K. Ikedo, T. Hosokawa, Y. Sugasawa, S. Shimonaga, K. Kushi, Y. Niwa, A. Ozaki, S. Hattori, E. Y. Hamano, E. Yamada, K. Imamura, H. Mori, H. Iihara, K. Kataoka, H. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2024

Aged, Humans, Middle Aged, Postoperative Cognitive Complications, Intracranial Aneurysm, Retrospective Studies, Cognition, Executive Function, Delirium, Older patient, Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, Postoperative cognitive recovery, Unruptured intracranial aneurysm

Random forest algorithm for predicting postoperative delirium in older patients Sheng, W. Tang, X. Hu, X. Liu, P. Liu, L. Miao, H. Wang, D. Li, T. Front Neurol 2023

confusion matrix, older patient, partial dependence graph, postoperative delirium, random forest

Role of supplemental regional blocks on postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction after major non-cardiac surgeries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Singh, N. P. Makkar, J. K. Borle, A. Singh, P. M. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2024

Adult, Humans, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Anesthesia, Conduction, Analgesia/methods, Delirium, Postoperative Cognitive, Complications/diagnosis/prevention & control, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Pain, Postoperative, Treatment Outcome, analgesia

Early postoperative neurocognitive complications in elderly patients: comparing those with and without preexisting mild cognitive impairment- a prospective study Somnuke, P. Srishewachart, P. Jiraphorncharas, C. Khempetch, A. Weeranithan, J. Suraarunsumrit, P. Srinonprasert, V. Siriussawakul, A. BMC Geriatr 2024

Aged, Humans, Prospective Studies, Postoperative, Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Cognitive, Dysfunction/diagnosis/epidemiology, Emergence Delirium, Postoperative Cognitive Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Elderly, Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), Postoperative delirium (POD)

Prediction models for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with machine-learning algorithms and SHapley Additive exPlanations Song, Y. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Liu, Y. Chen, K. Sun, J. Shi, L. Li, B. Yang, X. Mi, W. Cao, J. Transl Psychiatry 2024

Aged, Humans, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Algorithms, Hip Fractures/surgery, Machine Learning

Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative delirium in aged patients after surgery: A matched cohort study Song, Y. X. Wang, Q. Ma, Y. L. Chen, K. S. Liu, M. Zhou, X. F. Zhao, H. Lou, J. S. Li, H. Liu, Y. H. Mi, W. D. Cao, J. B. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutrition Assessment, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Prognosis, Cohort Studies, Nutritional Status, Aged patients, Biomarker, Postoperative delirium, Prognostic nutritional index

Investigating the correlation of delirium after cardiac surgery with memories and posttraumatic stress disorder consequences of intensive care unit: A prospective cohort study Su, L. J. Chen, M. J. Yang, R. Zou, H. Chen, T. T. Li, S. L. Xin, H. N. Hu, R. F. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2024

Cardiac surgery, Delirium, Intensive care unit, Memory, Posttraumatic stress disorder

Effect of Delirium on Interhospital Transfer Outcomes Thomas, M. K. Kalivas, B. Zhang, J. Marsden, J. Mauldin, P. D. Moran, W. P. Hunt, K. Heincelman, M. South Med J 2024

Adult, Humans, Retrospective Studies, Patient Transfer, Hospitalization, Length of Stay, Hospital Mortality, Delirium/epidemiology, Emergency Service, Hospital

Impaired glucose utilization in the brain of patients with delirium following hip fracture Titlestad, I. Watne, L. O. Caplan, G. A. McCann, A. Ueland, P. M. Neerland, B. E. Myrstad, M. Halaas, N. B. Pollmann, C. T. Henjum, K. Ranhoff, A. H. Solberg, L. B. Figved, W. Cunningham, C. Giil, L. M. Brain 2024

Humans, Aged, 80 and over, Glucose/metabolism, Acetoacetates
3-Hydroxybutyric Acid, Delirium, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Hip Fractures/complications/surgery, Brain/diagnostic imaging/metabolism, Lactates, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, acetoacetate, branched-chain amino acids, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate

Types, predictors, and consequences of medicines related problems (MRPs) in frail older adults admitted to hospital from primary care - A retrospective cohort study Ude-Okeleke, R. C. Aslanpour, Z. Dhillon, S. Berry, R. Bines, E. Umaru, N. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm 2024

Delirium, Deterioration, Frailty, Hospitalization, MRPs, Older people, Primary care

Development and Usability Testing of a Mobile App-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Delirium: Randomized Crossover Trial Wang, J. Ji, M. Han, Y. Wu, Y. JMIR Aging 2024

Humans, Aged, Delirium/diagnosis, Cross-Over Studies, Mobile Applications, Decision Support Systems, Clinical, User-Centered Design, User-Computer, Interface, Reproducibility of Results, 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for Confusion Assessment Method-Defined Delirium, 3d-cam, clinical decision, support system, delirium, nurse, older adults

Risk factors for dementia in older intensive care unit (ICU) survivors Wang, S. Perkins, A. J. Chi, R. Yates, B. A. Khan, S. H. Gao, S. Boustani, M. Khan, B. A. Alzheimers Dement 2024

Humans, Female, Aged, Middle Aged, Male, Delirium/epidemiology/etiology, Prospective Studies, Intensive Care Units, Risk Factors, Stroke/complications, Dementia/epidemiology/complications, Survivors, Alzheimer’s disease, critical illness, delirium, dementia, depression, intensive care unit, stroke

Geriatric nutritional risk index independently predicts delirium in older patients in intensive care units: A multicenter cohort study Wei, F. Cheng, H. He, R. Yang, X. Hu, Z. Lyu, J. Wang, Y. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutritional Status, Malnutrition/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology, Nutrition Assessment
Cohort Studies, Intensive Care Units, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/complications, Geriatric, Assessment/methods, Risk Factors, Delirium, Electronic medical records, Geriatric nutritional risk index, Intensive care unit, Malnutrition, Older adults

The RAPID-score: Risk Assessment and PredIction of Delirium in acute stroke patients based on very early clinical parameters Wischmann, J. Kremer, P. Hinske, L. Tomasi, R. Becker-Pennrich, A. S. Kellert, L. Front Neurol 2023

acute stroke, delirium, intensive care unit, post-stroke delirium, prediction score, stroke unit

Assessing patterns of delirium symptoms reveals a novel subtype among elective surgical patients with postoperative delirium Yang, L. Do, Q. Zhu, X. Leung, J. M. Sands, L. P. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium/complications, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology, Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis, Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Risk Factors, aging, delirium subtypes, elective surgery, postoperative delirium

Efficacy of dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine on postoperative analgesia and delirium in elderly patients with total knee arthroplasty Ye, Z. H. Li, Y. Wu, X. P. Yu, Z. Ma, Z. R. Hai, K. R. Ye, Q. S. J Robot Surg 2024

Aged, Humans, Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects, Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use, Ropivacaine, Emergence Delirium, Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods, Analgesia, Dexmedetomidine, Postoperative analgesia, Postoperative delirium, Total knee arthroplasty

Delirium is associated with failure to rescue after cardiac surgery A. M. Strobel, R. J. Kaplan, E. Norman, A. V. Ahmad, R. Kern, J. Yarboro, L. Yount, K. Hulse, M. Teman, N. R. JTCVS OpenYoung 2023

delirium, failure to rescue, perioperative care, CAM ICU, cardiac surgery

The Effect of Central Sensitization on Postoperative Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Hospitalized Elderly Patients: A Prospective Cohort Clinical Trial Yu, L. Yang, D. Zhou, Q. Yin, C. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Yu, J. Wang, Q. Exp Aging Res 2024

Aged, Humans, Central Nervous System Sensitization, Prospective Studies, Aging, Propofol, Mental Status and Dementia Tests

Peripheral nerve block and cognitive impairment after thoracic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis Zhang, Y. Liu, M. He, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, M. Li, J. Minerva Anestesiol 2024

postoperative cognitive impairment, cognitive dysfunction, thoracic surgery, nerve block, surgery

Preoperative cognitive training improves postoperative cognitive function: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials Zhao, L. Guo, Y. Zhou, X. Mao, W. Li, L. Front Neurol 2023

cognitive function training, cognitive training, meta-analysis, perioperative neurocognitive disorders, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, postoperative delirium

Enhancing delirium assessment and management through nursing education interventions: A scoping review Zhao, Y. Missbrenner, N. Xu, H. D. Josephson, J. Nurse Educ Pract 2024

Delirium assessment, Delirium management, Nurse education, Nursing education intervention

Enhancing delirium assessment and management through nursing education interventions: A scoping review Zhao, Y. Missbrenner, N. Xu, H. D. Josephson, J. Nurse Educ Pract 2024

Delirium assessment
Delirium management
Nurse education
Nursing education intervention

Different Sedation Strategies in Older Patients Receiving Spinal Anesthesia for Hip Surgery on Postoperative Delirium: A Randomized Clinical Trial Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, L. Li, J. Xue, X. Li, Z. Liu, J. Liu, X. Zhao, S. Drug Des Devel Ther 2023

Humans, Aged, Propofol/adverse effects, Emergence Delirium, Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects, Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects, Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects, Delirium/etiology, Postoperative Complications/epidemiology, anesthetics, hip surgery, propofol, spinal anesthesia

Frailty and post-operative delirium influence on functional status in patients with hip fracture: the GIOG 2.0 study Gandossi, C. M. Zambon, A. Ferrara, M. C. Tassistro, E. Castoldi, G. Colombo, F. Mussi, C. Martini, E. Sergi, G. Coin, A. Zatti, G. Trevisan, C. Volpato, S. Ungar, A. Bellelli, G. Aging Clin Exp Res 2023

Aged, 80 and over
*Emergence Delirium
Functional Status
Prospective Studies
*Hip Fractures/surgery
Risk Factors
Functional outcome
Hip fracture

Associations between Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and postoperative delirium or cognitive dysfunction: A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of prospective clinical trials Geng, J. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Shi, H. Wu, Z. Chen, J. Luo, F. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2023
Delirium in oncological palliative care and clinical cardiology units: A comparative analysis Grisales, E. S. Higuita, A. M. Correa, M. E. Gómez, J. J. V. González, C. P. Daveloza, A. K. Vásquez, J. G. F. Palliat Support Care

Palliative Care
Cross-Sectional Studies
Oncological palliative care

Risk Factors and Associated Outcomes of Postoperative Delirium After Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Gutierrez, R. D. Smith, E. J. T. Matthay, Z. A. Gasper, W. J. Hiramoto, J. S. Conte, M. S. Finlayson, E. Walter, L. C. Iannuzzi, J. C. J Vasc Surg 2023

abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
open AAA repair (OAR)

Effect of preoperative sleep disorders on delirium in proximal femoral surgery patients aged 60 or older Han, F. Liu, X. Huang, H. Chu, H. Feng, W. BMC Anesthesiol 2023

Middle Aged
*Hip Fractures/surgery
Postoperative Complications/epidemiology/diagnosis
Risk Factors
Prospective Studies
*Emergence Delirium/complications
*Proximal Femoral Fractures
Hip fractures
Postoperative delirium
Sleep disorder

Electroencephalogram measured functional connectivity for delirium detection: a systematic review Hanna, A. Jirsch, J. Alain, C. Corvinelli, S. Lee, J. S. Front Neurosci 2023

functional connectivity

Development and evaluation of a concise nurse-driven non-pharmacological delirium reduction workflow for hospitalized patients: An interrupted time series study Harrison, J. D. Rathfon, M. Binford, S. Miranda, J. Oreper, S. Holt, B. Rogers, S. E. Geriatr Nurs 2023

Intervention studies
Quality improvement

Predicting postoperative delirium after cardiovascular surgeries from preoperative portable electroencephalography oscillations Hata, M. Miyazaki, Y. Nagata, C. Masuda, H. Wada, T. Takahashi, S. Ishii, R. Miyagawa, S. Ikeda, M. Ueno, T. Front Psychiatry 2023

cardiovascular surgery
machine learning
power spectrum density

Lower alpha frequency of intraoperative frontal EEG is associated with postoperative delirium: A secondary propensity-matched analysis Hight, D. Ehrhardt, A. Lersch, F. Luedi, M. M. Stüber, F. Kaiser, H. A. J Clin Anesth 2023

Alpha rhythm
Anesthesia, general
Delirium, postoperative
Monitoring, intraoperative

Inflammatory and nutritional markers predict the risk of post-operative delirium in elderly patients following total hip arthroplasty Hu, W. Song, Z. Shang, H. Wang, J. Hao, Y. Front Nutr 2023

inflammatory markers
nutritional markers
post-operative delirium
total hip arthroplasty

Evaluation of brain nerve function in ICU patients with Delirium by deep learning algorithm-based resting state MRI Huang, X. Jiang, R. Peng, S. Wei, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. Lian, W. Open Life Sci 2023

brain nerve function
deep learning algorithm
resting state MRI

Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury-related delirium: a systematic review Huang, Y. Q. Weiss, S. Gros, P. Wong, E. Piché, P. P. Vyas, M. V. Tam, A. K. H. Watt, J. A. J Neurol 2023

Middle Aged
Haloperidol/therapeutic use
*Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy/drug therapy
*Delirium/etiology/prevention & control
Traumatic brain injury

The Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine alone or with Melatonin on Delirium after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial Javaherforooshzadeh, F. Babazadeh Dezfoli, A. Saki Malehi, A. Gholizadeh, B. Anesth Pain Med 2023

Cardiac Surgery
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Elderly Patients
Postoperative Delirium

Cerebral autoregulation-based mean arterial pressure targets and delirium in critically ill adults without brain injury: a retrospective cohort study Khan, J. M. Shore, A. Lee, K. F. H. Wood, M. D. Maslove, D. M. Hunt, M. Georgescu, I. Muscedere, J. Boyd, J. G. Can J Anaesth 2023

cerebral autoregulation
critically ill
near-infrared spectroscopy
optimal mean arterial blood pressure (MAPopt)

Clinical Features of Delirium among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit According to Motor Subtype Classification: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study Kim, J. Oh, J. Ahn, J. S. Chung, K. Kim, M. K. Shin, C. S. Park, J. Y. Yonsei Med J 2023

Retrospective Studies
Longitudinal Studies
*Delirium/diagnosis/drug therapy/epidemiology
*Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use
Intensive Care Units
intensive care unit
physical restraint

The Efficacy of Ramelteon to Prevent Postoperative Delirium After General Anesthesia in the Elderly: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Kinouchi, M. Mihara, T. Taguri, M. Ogura, M. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2023

*Emergence Delirium/chemically induced/complications/drug therapy
*Indenes/adverse effects
Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
Double-Blind Method
Elective surgery
general anesthesia
melatonin receptor agonist
postoperative delirium
randomized controlled trial

Association of general anesthesia exposure with risk of postoperative delirium in patients receiving transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a meta-analysis and systematic review Ko, C. C. Hung, K. C. Chang, Y. P. Liu, C. C. Cheng, W. J. Wu, J. Y. Li, Y. Y. Lin, T. C. Sun, C. K. Sci Rep 2023

Delirium is a heterogeneous and detrimental mental condition often seen in older, hospitalized patients and is currently hard to predict. In this study, we leverage large-scale, real- world data using the electronic health records (EHR) to identify two cohorts comprised of 7,492 UCSF patients and 19,417 UC health system patients (excluding UCSF patients) with an inpatient delirium diagnosis and the same number of propensity score-matched control patients without delirium. We found significant associations between comorbidities or laboratory test values and an inpatient delirium diagnosis which were validated independently. Most of these associations were those previously-identified as risk factors for delirium, including metabolic abnormalities, mental health diagnoses, and infections. Some of the associations were sex- specific, including those related to dementia subtypes and infections. We further explored the diagnostic associations with anemia and bipolar disorder by conducting longitudinal analyses from the time of first diagnosis of the risk factor to development of delirium demonstrating a significant relationship across time. Finally, we show that an inpatient delirium diagnosis leads to dramatic increases in mortality outcome across both cohorts. These results demonstrate the powerful application of leveraging EHR data to shed insights into prior diagnoses and laboratory test values that could help predict development of inpatient delirium and emphasize the importance of considering patient demographic characteristics including documented sex when making these assessments. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Longitudinal analysis of electronic health record data reveals associations between inpatient delirium, comorbidities, and mortality.

Sex-stratified phenotyping of comorbidities associated with an inpatient delirium diagnosis using real world data Kodama, L. Woldemariam, S. Tang, A. Li, Y. Oskotsky, T. Raphael, E. Sirota, M. medRxiv 2023

Delirium is a heterogeneous and detrimental mental condition often seen in older, hospitalized patients and is currently hard to predict. In this study, we leverage large-scale, real- world data using the electronic health records (EHR) to identify two cohorts comprised of 7,492 UCSF patients and 19,417 UC health system patients (excluding UCSF patients) with an inpatient delirium diagnosis and the same number of propensity score-matched control patients without delirium. We found significant associations between comorbidities or laboratory test values and an inpatient delirium diagnosis which were validated independently. Most of these associations were those previously-identified as risk factors for delirium, including metabolic abnormalities, mental health diagnoses, and infections. Some of the associations were sex- specific, including those related to dementia subtypes and infections. We further explored the diagnostic associations with anemia and bipolar disorder by conducting longitudinal analyses from the time of first diagnosis of the risk factor to development of delirium demonstrating a significant relationship across time. Finally, we show that an inpatient delirium diagnosis leads to dramatic increases in mortality outcome across both cohorts. These results demonstrate the powerful application of leveraging EHR data to shed insights into prior diagnoses and laboratory test values that could help predict development of inpatient delirium and emphasize the importance of considering patient demographic characteristics including documented sex when making these assessments. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Longitudinal analysis of electronic health record data reveals associations between inpatient delirium, comorbidities, and mortality.

Comparison of the effectiveness of delirium evaluation tools in intensive care patients: pre-deliric versions 1 and 2, E-pre-deliric and ICDSC Kucuk, O. Memis, D. Inal, M. T. Turan, F. N. Memis, I. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2023

Middle Aged
Reproducibility of Results
Prospective Studies
Critical Care/methods
Intensive Care Units

New-onset delirium during hospitalization in older adults: incidence and risk factors Lami Pereira, R. Bojanini Molina, L. Wilger, K. Hedges, M. S. Tolaymat, L. Haga, C. Walker, A. Gillis, M. Yin, M. Dawson, N. L. Hosp Pract (1995) 2023

Retrospective Studies
Length of Stay
Risk Factors

The Potential Value of Systemic Inflammation Response Index on Delirium After Hip Arthroplasty Surgery in Older Patients: A Retrospective Study Lu, W. Lin, S. Wang, C. Jin, P. Bian, J. Int J Gen Med 2023

hip arthroplasty
neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio
platelet to lymphocyte ratio
postoperative delirium
systemic inflammation response index

Incidence of delirium in older people with cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis Martínez-Arnau, F. M. Buigues, C. Pérez-Ros, P. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2023


Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) for the diagnosis of delirium in adults in critical care settings Miranda, F. Gonzalez, F. Plana, M. N. Zamora, J. Quinn, T. J. Seron, P. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023

Middle Aged
*Intensive Care Units
Sensitivity and Specificity
Critical Care

Exploration of key drug target proteins highlighting their related regulatory molecules, functional pathways and drug candidates associated with delirium: evidence from meta-data analyses Mosharaf, M. P. Alam, K. Gow, J. Mahumud, R. A. BMC Geriatr 2023

Gene Regulatory Networks
Transcription Factors/genetics
*Delirium/drug therapy
Drug repurposing
Transcription factors

Development of postoperative delirium prediction models in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery using machine learning algorithms Nagata, C. Hata, M. Miyazaki, Y. Masuda, H. Wada, T. Kimura, T. Fujii, M. Sakurai, Y. Matsubara, Y. Yoshida, K. Miyagawa, S. Ikeda, M. Ueno, T. Sci Rep 2023

delirium, postoperative, machine learning, cardiovascular, hospital

EEG microstate quantifiers and state space descriptors during anaesthesia in patients with postoperative delirium: a descriptive analysis Neuner, B. Wolter, S. McCarthy, W. J. Spies, C. Cunningham, C. Radtke, F. M. Franck, M. Koenig, T. Brain Commun 2023

EEG microstates
EEG state space descriptors
multichannel EEG
postoperative delirium

Efficacy and Safety of Risperidone in Patients With Delirium: The RIDDLE Pilot Study Nguyen, P. V. Vu, T. T. M. Aust Crit CareJ Clin Psychopharmacol 2023

delirium, pilot study, risperidone, delirium rating scale, hospital

Intensive care unit nurses' perception of three different methods for delirium screening: A survey (DELIS-3) Nielsen, A. H. Larsen, L. K. Collet, M. O. Lehmkuhl, L. Bekker, C. Jensen, J. F. Laerkner, E. Nielsen, T. A. Rossen, B. S. Thorn, L. Laursen, E. Fischer, S. Villumsen, M. Shiv, L. H. Høgh, M. Rahr, M. N. Svenningsen, H. Aust Crit Care 2023

Cross-Sectional Studies
Intensive Care Units
Critical Care/methods
Critical care
Critical illness
Intensive care nursing

Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists for Prevention of Delirium in the Cardiac Surgical ICU: A Meta-analysis Niyogi, S. G. Naskar, C. Singh, A. Kumar, B. Grover, S. Indian J Crit Care Med 2023

Cardiac critical care
Postoperative delirium

Association between Neuron-Specific Enolase, Memory Function, and Postoperative Delirium after Transfemoral Aortic Valve Replacement Nübel, J. Buhre, C. Hoffmeister, M. Oess, S. Labrenz, O. Jost, K. Hauptmann, M. Schön, J. Fritz, G. Butter, C. Haase-Fielitz, A. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2023

cognitive assessment
memory function
neuron-specific enolase
postoperative delirium

A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of delirium in burn injury compared to other surgical specialities O'Brien, A. Hopkins, J. Boardman, G. Stanley, G. Daly, P. Martin, L. Wood, F. Burns 2023

Intensive Care Units
Retrospective Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
General surgery
Intensive care
Orthopaedic surgery
Plastic surgery

Postoperative Use of the Muscle Relaxants Baclofen and/or Cyclobenzaprine Associated With an Increased Risk of Delirium Following Lumbar Fusion Perez, E. A. Ray, E. Gold, C. J. Park, B. J. Piscopo, A. Carnahan, R. M. Banks, M. Sanders, R. D. Olinger, C. R. Mueller, R. N. Woodroffe, R. W. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2023

Cohort Studies
*Baclofen/adverse effects
Retrospective Studies
*Emergence Delirium/complications
Postoperative Complications/chemically induced/epidemiology

Extracellular Vesicles as Possible Plasma Markers and Mediators in Patients with Sepsis-Associated Delirium-A Pilot Study Plaschke, K. Brenner, T. Fiedler, M. O. Hölle, T. von der Forst, M. Wolf, R. C. Kopitz, J. Gebert, J. Weigand, M. A. Int J Mol Sci 2023

Pilot Projects
*Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy/metabolism
Longitudinal Studies
*Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism
intensive care unit
plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs)
sepsis-associated delirium (SAD)

Rest-activity patterns associated with delirium in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage Reznik, M. E. Mintz, N. Moody, S. Drake, J. Margolis, S. A. Rudolph, J. L. LaBuzetta, J. N. Kamdar, B. B. Jones, R. N. J Neurol Sci 2023

Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications

Development and validation of delirium prediction models for noncardiac surgery patients Rössler, J. Shah, K. Medellin, S. Turan, A. Ruetzler, K. Singh, M. Sessler, D. I. Maheshwari, K. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2023

Dynamic modeling
Machine learning
Noncardiac surgery

Effects of Opioids, Steroids, Benzodiazepines, Anticholinergics, and Antihistamines on the Efficacy of Antipsychotics for Treating Delirium in End-of-Life Adult Patients Undergoing Palliative Care Sato, J. Tanaka, R. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2023

*Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use
Palliative Care/methods
Cholinergic Antagonists/therapeutic use
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Retrospective Studies
*Delirium/drug therapy
Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use
Steroids/therapeutic use

Clinical Prediction Models for Hospital-Induced Delirium Using Structured and Unstructured Electronic Health Record Data: Protocol for a Development and Validation Study Ser, S. E. Shear, K. Snigurska, U. A. Prosperi, M. Wu, Y. Magoc, T. Bjarnadottir, R. I. Lucero, R. J. JMIR Res Protoc 2023

big data
clinical text
data science
free text
hospital acquired
hospital induced
hospital-acquired condition
machine learning
natural language processing
risk factors
text data

A Prospective Randomized Study of the Herbal Medicine Yokukansan for Preventing Delirium After Gastrointestinal Cancer Surgery Tanio, A. Yamamoto, M. Uejima, C. Tada, Y. Yamanashi, T. Matsuo, R. Miura, A. Kajitani, N. Nishiguchi, T. Iwata, M. Fujiwara, Y. Yonago Acta Med 2023

gastrointestinal cancer
postoperative delirium