Delirium Bibliography

Delirium Bibliography books graphicWhat is the Delirium Bibliography? The searchable Delirium Bibliography page is one of our most popular features, allowing you to quickly gain access to the literature on delirium and acute care of older persons. It is primarily intended for clinicians and researchers interested in exploring these topics. The NIDUS team keeps it updated for you on a monthly basis!

How to Search for Articles: Search by author, title, year, and/or keywords. Each article is indexed by keywords taken from MEDLINE and other relevant databases. Click on the title of the article to read the abstract, journal, etc.

Reference Information

Risk Factors and Associated Outcomes of Postoperative Delirium After Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
Gutierrez, R. D. Smith, E. J. T. Matthay, Z. A. Gasper, W. J. Hiramoto, J. S. Conte, M. S. Finlayson, E. Walter, L. C. Iannuzzi, J. C.
J Vasc Surg

OBJECTIVES: Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAR) is a major vascular procedure that incurs a large physiologic demand, increasing the risk for complications such as postoperative delirium (POD). We sought to characterize POD incidence, identify delirium risk factors, and evaluate the effect of delirium on postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that POD following OAR would be associated with increased postoperative complications and resource utilization. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all OAR cases from 2012-2020 at a single tertiary care center. POD was identified via a validated chart review method based on key words and Confusion Assessment Method assessments. The primary outcome was POD and secondary outcomes included length of stay, non-home discharge, 90-day mortality and 1-year survival. Bivariate analysis as appropriate to the data was used to assess the association of delirium with post-operative outcomes. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for postoperative delirium and Cox regression for variables associated with worse 1-year survival. RESULTS: Overall, 198 OAR cases were included, and POD developed in 34% (n=67). Factors associated with POD included older age (74 years vs 69 years, p<0.01), frailty (50% vs 28%, p<0.01), preoperative dementia (100% vs 32%, p<0.01), symptomatic presentation (47% vs 27%, p<0.01), preoperative coronary artery disease (44% vs 28%, p=0.02), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (89% vs 32%, p<0.01) and Charlson Comorbidity Index score >4 (42% vs 26%, p=0.01). POD was associated with 90-day mortality (19% vs 5%, p<0.01), non-home discharge (61% vs 30%, p<0.01), longer median hospital length of stay (14 days vs 8 days, p<0.01), longer median ICU length of stay (6 days vs 3 days, p<0.01), postoperative myocardial infarction (7% vs 2%, p=0.045) and postoperative pneumonia (19% vs 8%, p=0.01). On multivariable analysis, risk factors for POD included older age, history of end stage renal disease, lack of epidural, frailty and symptomatic presentation. A Cox proportional hazards model revealed that POD was associated with worse survival at 1 year (Hazard Ratio = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.6-9.0; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: POD is associated with worse postoperative outcomes and increased resource utilization. Future studies should examine the role of improved screening, implementation of delirium prevention bundles and multidisciplinary care for the most vulnerable patients undergoing OAR.


PMID: 38042511


abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
open AAA repair (OAR)


Total Records Found: 5897, showing 100 per page
Delirium Severity and Physical Function in Hospitalized Persons Living With Dementia: Moderation by Age, Sex, and Race Kuzmik, A. Boltz, M. Resnick, B. McPherson, R. Rodriguez, M. Drazich, B. F. Galik, E. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2024

Severity of Illness Index

Effectiveness of antipsychotics for managing agitated delirium in patients with advanced cancer: a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational study in Japan (Phase-R) Kurisu, K. Inada, S. Maeda, I. Nobata, H. Ogawa, A. Iwase, S. Uchida, M. Akechi, T. Amano, K. Nakajima, N. Morita, T. Sumitani, M. Yoshiuchi, K. Support Care Cancer 2024

*Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use
Olanzapine/therapeutic use
*Delirium/etiology/chemically induced
*Neoplasms/complications/drug therapy
Advanced cancer
Richmond agitation-sedation scale

The spectrum of psychological disorders in family members of patients suffering from delirium associated with critical illness: a prospective, observational study Kotfis, K. Maj, P. Szylińska, A. Pankowiak, M. Reszka, E. Ely, E. W. Marra, A. Sci Rep 2024

Critical Illness/psychology
Prospective Studies
*Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
Intensive Care Units
Intensive care unit
Psychological disorders

Impact of Prefracture Cognitive Impairment and Postoperative Delirium on Recovery After Hip Fracture Surgery Kamimura, T. Kobayashi, Y. Tamaki, S. Koinuma, M. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2024

Cognitive impairment
hip fracture

Development of a Prediction Model for Delirium in Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Cancer Jung, E. H. Yoo, S. H. Lee, S. W. Kang, B. Kim, Y. J. Cancer Res Treat 2024

Palliative care
Predictive model

Nurses' Knowledge and Subjective Strain in Delirium Care: Impact of a Web-based Instructional Module on Nurses Competence Jose, S. Cyriac, M. C. Dhandapani, M. Indian J Crit Care Med 2024

Emergency wards
Hyperactive delirium
Intensive care units
Nurses knowledge about delirium
Subjective strain
Web-based instructional module

Difficulties faced by intensive care nurses in caring for patients with delirium: A cross-sectional, multicentre study Jiang, T. Tung, T. H. Wang, Y. Zheng, X. T. Jia, L. Zhang, W. Aust Crit Care 2024

Cross-sectional study
Intensive care unit

Short-term outcomes of prehospital opioid pain management for older adults with fall-related injury Jarman, M. P. Jin, G. Chen, A. Losina, E. Weissman, J. S. Berry, S. D. Salim, A. J Am Geriatr Soc 2024

emergency medical services
geriatric care
pain management
traumatic injury

Concomitant use of hydroxyzine and haloperidol did not worsen delirium in patients with cancer: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study Hirayama, T. Igarashi, E. Wada, S. Sadahiro, R. Oshikiri, H. Suzuka, M. Sato, Y. Utsumi, Y. Sakuma, A. Nakahara, R. Imai, T. Tomita, H. Matsuoka, H. Palliat Support Care 2024

concomitant use
patient with cancer

Valve unit instead of intensive or intermediate care unit admission following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is safe and reduces postprocedural complications Gröger, M. Felbel, D. Paukovitsch, M. Schneider, L. M. Markovic, S. Rottbauer, W. Keßler, M. Clin Res Cardiol 2024

Intensive care
Mitral valve repair
Postprocedural care

Delirium in acute stroke is associated with increased cognitive and psychiatric symptoms over time: The Nor-COAST study Gjestad, E. Nerdal, V. Saltvedt, I. Lydersen, S. Kliem, E. Ryum, T. Grambaite, R. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2024

cerebrovascular disease
cognitive impairment
longitudinal study
mixed-model linear regression
neuropsychiatric symptoms

Delirium following traumatic brain injury in adolescents: Symptomatology and prediction of ability to return to school or employment 1-year post-injury Garofano, J. S. Nakase-Richardson, R. Barnett, S. D. Yablon, S. A. Evans, C. Zaim, N. Pm r 2024

Young Adult
Return to School
*Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications/diagnosis
*Brain Injuries/complications

Developing a set of emergency department performance measures to evaluate delirium care quality for older adults: a modified e-Delphi study Filiatreault, S. Kreindler, S. A. Grimshaw, J. M. Chochinov, A. Doupe, M. B. BMC Emerg Med 2024

Delphi Technique
*Quality of Health Care
Surveys and Questionnaires
Emergency Service, Hospital
Emergency services (hospital)
Older adults
Performance measures
Process assessment (health care)
Quality indicators (health care)

Delirium is associated with low levels of upright activity in geriatric inpatients-results from a prospective observational study Evensen, S. Taraldsen, K. Aam, S. Morandi, A. Aging Clin Exp Res 2024

Aged, 80 and over
Prospective Studies
Hospitals, University
Activity monitoring
Physical activity

Improving Healthcare Quality and Clinical Outcomes for Persons with Dementia in the Sub-Acute Hospital Through Person-Centered Care Practice Chenoweth, L. Burley, C. Cook, J. Cheah, S. L. Reyes, P. Maiden, G. McGuire, J. McCade, D. Brodaty, H. Sukhapure, M. Harrison, F. Williams, A. J Alzheimers Dis 2024

Alzheimer’s disease
clinical outcomes
healthcare quality
person-centered care champion
sub-acute hospital

Preoperative geriatric nutritional risk index is useful factor for predicting postoperative delirium among elderly patients with degenerative lumbar diseases Chen, Q. Zhu, C. Ai, Y. Wang, J. Ding, H. Luo, D. Li, Z. Song, Y. Feng, G. Liu, L. Eur Spine J 2024

Elderly population
Geriatric nutritional risk index
Postoperative delirium
Transforaminal lumber interbody fusion

Association between perioperative self-reported sleep disturbances and delirium risk in elderly patients following total joint arthroplasty: a cohort study Chen, H. Fang, Z. Wu, Y. Y. Zhao, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Zhu, X. H. Cheng, X. Q. J Sleep Res 2024

postoperative delirium
sleep disturbance
sleep questionnaire

A Prospective Observational Cohort Study of Language Preference and Preoperative Cognitive Screening in Older Adults: Do Language Disparities Exist in Cognitive Screening and Does the Association Between Test Results and Postoperative Delirium Differ Base Canales, C. Ramirez, C. M. Yang, S. C. Feinberg, S. A. Grogan, T. R. Whittington, R. A. Sarkisian, C. Cannesson, M. Anesth Analg 2024

Postoperative Delirium

Language other than English preference patients

Language disparities

Cognitive Screening


Causal relationship between dementia and delirium: Insights from a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis Cai, Y. Wang, J. Wang, X. Yuan, Q. Xu, Y. Xu, P. J Affect Disord 2024

Mendelian Randomization Analysis
Risk Factors
*Alzheimer Disease
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genetic causal relationship
Mendelian randomization
competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared
to influence the work reported in this paper.

Cognitive reserve and the risk of postoperative neurocognitive disorders in older age Borchers, F. Rumpel, M. Laubrock, J. Spies, C. Kozma, P. Slooter, A. van Montfort, S. J. T. Piper, S. K. Wiebach, J. Winterer, G. Pischon, T. Feinkohl, I. Front Aging Neurosci 2023

cognitive reserve
elective surgery
geriatric assessment
postoperative cognitive dysfunction
postoperative delirium
postoperative neurocognitive disorders

Gaps in cognitive care among older patients undergoing spine surgery Barreto Chang, O. L. Pawar, N. Whitlock, E. L. Miller, B. Possin, K. L. J Am Geriatr Soc 2024

cognitive impairment
delirium preventive interventions
postoperative delirium (POD)

Screening and differential diagnosis of delirium in neurointensive stroke patients Bakošová, L. Kec, D. Škorňa, M. Jura, R. Kundrata, Z. Košťálová, M. Bednařík, J. Heliyon 2024

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus
personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in
this paper.

Validation of PRE-DELIRIC and E-PRE-DELIRIC in a Danish population of intensive care unit patients-A prospective observational multicenter study Anton Joseph, N. Poulsen, L. M. Maagaard, M. Tholander, S. Pedersen, H. B. S. Georgi-Jensen, C. Mathiesen, O. Andersen-Ranberg, N. C. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2024

Prospective Studies
Critical Illness
Intensive Care Units
intensive care unit
prediction models

The Validity and Applicability of the Revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) for Delirium Severity Assessment in a Critical Care Setting Almuhairi, E. S. Badejo, M. Peer, A. Pitkanen, M. McKenzie, C. A. J Intensive Care Med 2024

Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Reproducibility of Results
Critical Illness
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Severity of Illness Index
Critical Care
intensive care

Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Quetiapine in the Treatment of Delirium in Adult ICU Patients: A Retrospective Comparative Study Alghadeer, S. Almesned, R. S. Alshehri, E. A. Alwhaibi, A. J Clin Med 2024

QTc interval
efficacy and safety

Prolonged delirium during hospitalization is associated with worse long-term and short-term outcomes in patients with acute heart failure Aikawa, Y. Ogata, S. Honda, S. Nagai, T. Murata, S. Morii, I. Anzai, T. Nishimura, K. Noguchi, T. Int J Cardiol 2024

Aged, 80 and over
*Heart Failure/diagnosis/therapy/epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Patient Discharge
Acute Disease
Acute heart failure

Safety Analysis of Bapineuzumab in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Gao, Y. Guo, J. Zhang, F. Li, Y. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2024

*Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Edema/chemically induced/drug therapy
Alzheimer’s disease
confidence interval (CI)
risk ratio (RR).
vasogenic edema

Biomarkers of neurodegeneration and neural injury as potential predictors for delirium Fong, T. G. Vasunilashorn, S. M. Kivisäkk, P. Metzger, E. D. Schmitt, E. M. Marcantonio, E. R. Jones, R. N. Shanes, H. T. Arnold, S. E. Inouye, S. K. Ngo, L. H. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2024

Amyloid beta-Peptides
tau Proteins
*Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid
AD biomarkers
neural injury biomarkers

Effectiveness and safety of second-generation antipsychotics for psychiatric disorders apart from schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis Feng, X. Z. Li, Z. Li, Z. Y. Wang, K. Tan, X. Zhao, Y. Y. Mi, W. F. Zhu, W. L. Bao, Y. P. Lu, L. Li, S. X. Psychiatry Res 2024

*Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects
*Schizophrenia/drug therapy
Olanzapine/therapeutic use
Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use
Risperidone/therapeutic use
Randomized controlled trials
Second-generation antipsychotics
of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this

Prevalence of Delirium After Abdominal Surgery and Association With Ketamine: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Cohort Study Faisal, H. Qamar, F. Hsu, E. S. Xu, J. Lai, E. C. Wong, S. T. Masud, F. N. Crit Care Explor 2024

critical care
healthcare delivery
outcomes assessment
surgical procedures

CRP/albumin, Glasgow prognostic score, and prognostic nutritional index as a predictor of mortality among delirium patients Doğan, R. B. Yavuz, B. G. Satilmis, D. Afacan, M. A. Colak, S. Ir J Med Sci 2024

*C-Reactive Protein/metabolism
Nutrition Assessment
Retrospective Studies
C-reactive protein
Glasgow prognostic score (GPS)
Prognostic nutritional index (PNI)

DeltaScan for the Assessment of Acute Encephalopathy and Delirium in ICU and non-ICU Patients, a Prospective Cross-Sectional Multicenter Validation Study Ditzel, F. L. Hut, S. C. A. van den Boogaard, M. Boonstra, M. Leijten, F. S. S. Wils, E. J. van Nesselrooij, T. Kromkamp, M. Rood, P. J. T. Röder, C. Bouvy, P. F. Coesmans, M. Osse, R. J. Pop-Purceleanu, M. van Dellen, E. Krulder, J. W. M. Milisen, K. Fa Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2023

Acute encephalopathy
Polymorphic delta activity

Development of a complex intervention to prevent delirium in older hospitalized patients by optimizing discharge and transfer processes and involving caregivers: A multi-method study Denninger, N. E. Brefka, S. Skudlik, S. Leinert, C. Mross, T. Meyer, G. Sulmann, D. Dallmeier, D. Denkinger, M. Müller, M. Int J Nurs Stud 2024

*Patient Discharge
Pilot Projects
*Delirium/prevention & control
Acute care
Complex intervention
Patient care management
Patient discharge
Patient transfer

to influence the work reported in this paper.

Performance and validation of two ICU delirium assessment and severity tools; a prospective observational study den Boogaard, M. V. Leenders, M. Pop-Purceleanu, M. Tilburgs, B. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2024

Critically ill

"Beyond Feasibility": A Qualitative Study of Patients, Their Whānau (Family) and Staff Perspectives and Experiences of a Non- Pharmacological Delirium-Prevention Intervention in Two Aotearoa/New Zealand Hospices Davies, C. Basire, K. Jones, V. Gillmore, D. Hosie, A. Gourley, A. Collier, A. J Pain Symptom Manage 2024

Māori people
feasibility studies
palliative care
research qualitative

Does ICU admission dysphagia independently contribute to delirium risk in ischemic stroke patients? Results from a cohort study Cheng, H. Song, S. Tang, Y. Yuan, S. Huang, X. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Tian, X. Lyu, J. BMC Psychiatry 2024

Cohort Studies
*Deglutition Disorders
Retrospective Studies
Critical Illness
*Ischemic Stroke
Intensive Care Units
Cohort study
Intensive care unit
Ischemic stroke

Development and validation of a delirium care critical-thinking scale for intensive care unit nurses: A mixed-method study Chang, Y. L. Hsieh, M. J. Pan, C. I. Shang, S. T. Tsai, Y. F. J Clin Nurs 2024

Delphi method
critical thinking
instrument development
intensive care nursing
intensive care unit
psychometric assessment

Mapping the trajectory of acute mild-stroke cognitive recovery using serial computerised cognitive assessment Campbell, A. Gustafsson, L. Grimley, R. Gullo, H. Rosbergen, I. Summers, M. Brain Impair 2023

Humans, Aged, Brain Ischemia, Stroke/complications
Cognition, Memory, Short-Term, Delirium, Cognitive dysfunction
delirium, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychological tests, stroke

Risk factors for postoperative delirium in orthopaedic hip surgery patients: a database review Callan, K. T. Donnelly, M. Lung, B. McLellan, M. DiGiovanni, R. McMaster, W. Yang, S. Stitzlein, R. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium/complications, Orthopedics, Proximal Femoral Fractures, Postoperative Complications/epidemiology/etiology, Risk Factors, Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects, Osteoarthritis/complications, Retrospective Studies, Delirium, Hip fracture, Osteoarthritis, Total hip arthroplasty

Association of perioperative plasma concentration of neurofilament light with delirium after cardiac surgery: a nested observational study Brown, C. H. Kim, A. S. Yanek, L. Lewis, A. Mandal, K. Le, L. Tian, J. Neufeld, K. J. Hogue, C. Moghekar, A. Br J Anaesth 2024

Intermediate Filaments
Prospective Studies
*Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
Postoperative Complications/diagnosis
blood biomarker
cardiac surgery
neurofilament light
postoperative delirium

Advancing specificity in delirium: The delirium subtyping initiative Bowman, E. M. L. Brummel, N. E. Caplan, G. A. Cunningham, C. Evered, L. A. Fiest, K. M. Girard, T. D. Jackson, T. A. LaHue, S. C. Lindroth, H. L. Maclullich, A. M. J. McAuley, D. F. Oh, E. S. Oldham, M. A. Page, V. J. Pandharipande, P. P. Potter, K. M. Si Alzheimers Dement 2024

Research Design
Data Collection
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
acute encephalopathy
clinical features
cognitive change

Cognitive impairment in critically ill patients and former critically ill patients: A concept analysis Bødker Hanifa, A. L. Svenningsen, H. Møller, A. N. Dreyer, P. Holm, A. Aust Crit Care 2024

Humans, Critical Illness/rehabilitation, Quality of Life, Cognitive Dysfunction
Hospitalization, Intensive Care Units, Delirium/prevention & control, Cognition, Cognitive dysfunction, Cognitive impairment, Concept analysis, Critical care, Critical illness, Rehabilitation, Review

Effects of structured protocolized physical therapy on the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prolonged weaning Bickenbach, J. Fritsch, S. Cosler, S. Simon, Y. Dreher, M. Theisen, S. Kao, J. Hildebrand, F. Marx, G. Simon, T. P. J Crit Care 2024

Humans, Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects, Ventilator Weaning/methods, Hand Strength, Critical Illness/therapy, Time Factors, Intensive Care Units, Physical Therapy Modalities, ICU-acquired weakness, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Prolonged weaning

The Utilization of Preoperative Steroids Safely Decreases the Risk of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients after Hip Fracture Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Baumann, A. N. Talaski, G. M. Uhler, M. A. Anastasio, A. T. Walley, K. C. Pean, C. A. Tampi, R. R. Farivar, M. J Orthop Trauma 2024

geriatric, postoperative delirium, hip fracture, steroids

Nomogram to predict the incidence of delirium in elderly patients with non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection An, G. Mi, Z. Hong, D. Ou, D. Cao, X. Liu, Q. Xiong, L. Li, C. Front Psychiatry 2023

elderly patients
non-severe infection
commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential
conflict of interest.

Practical Application of a Battery of Brief Tools to Evaluate Geriatric Medical Inpatients for the Three Ds Alviz Núñez, M. Villa García, M. M. Gonzalez, M. C. Urrea, M. B. Velásquez-Tirado, J. D. Ocampo, M. V. Trzepacz, P. T. Franco, J. G. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2024

Humans, Aged, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology, Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology, Inpatients, Cross-Sectional Studies, Ddt, Comorbidity, Delirium, Dementia, Depression, Geriatric Neuropsychiatry, The 3 Ds

Preoperative electroencephalographic alpha-power changes with eyes opening are associated with postoperative attention impairment and inattention-related delirium severity Acker, L. Wong, M. K. Wright, M. C. Reese, M. Giattino, C. M. Roberts, K. C. Au, S. Colon-Emeric, C. Lipsitz, L. A. Devinney, M. J. Browndyke, J. Eleswarpu, S. Moretti, E. Whitson, H. E. Berger, M. Woldorff, M. G. Br J Anaesth 2024

Humans, Electroencephalography, Cognitive Dysfunction, Cognition, Emergence, Delirium/diagnosis, Attention, Postoperative Complications/diagnosis, alpha attenuation, delirium, eyes opening, postoperative delirium

Ketofol versus Dexmedetomidine for preventing postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing intestinal obstruction surgeries: a randomized controlled study Abd Ellatif, S. E. Mowafy, S. M. S. Shahin, M. A. BMC Anesthesiol 2024

Humans, Aged, Emergence Delirium/epidemiology/prevention & control, Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use, Prospective Studies, Propofol, Postoperative Complications/epidemiology/prevention & control/chemically induced, Double-Blind Method, Dexmedetomidine, Elderly patients, Intestinal obstruction surgeries, Ketofol, Postoperative delirium

Delirium is associated with loss of feedback cortical connectivity Gjini, K. Casey, C. Kunkel, D. Her, M. Banks, M. I. Pearce, R. A. Lennertz, R. Sanders, R. D. Alzheimers Dement 2024

Humans, Feedback, Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology, Electroencephalography, Inflammation, Delirium
Acoustic Stimulation/methods, auditory roving oddball paradigm, delirium
dynamic causal modeling, event-related potentials
evoked response potentials, high-density electroencephalogram, mismatch negativity, postoperative delirium, predictive coding framework

Impact of delirium on acute stroke outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Gong, X. Jin, S. Zhou, Y. Lai, L. Wang, W. Neurol Sci 2024

Acute stroke, Encephalopathy, Functional outcomes, Hospital admission, Mortality, Post-stroke delirium, Readmission rate

The prognostic validity of delirium severity as measured by Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOS scale) on adverse outcomes Gray, E. A. Ranasinghe, C. Lin, H. S. Australas J Ageing 2024

confusion, delirium, frailty, morbidity, prognosis

The Relationship Between Uncertainty and Psychological Distress Among Family Caregivers of Patients With Delirium in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-Sectional Survey Haji Assa, A. Cao, X. Boehm, L. M. Umberger, R. A. Carter, M. A. Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2024

Adult, Humans, Caregivers, Cross-Sectional Studies, Uncertainty, Intensive Care Units, Family/psychology, Psychological Distress, Delirium, Stress, Psychological

The Relationship Between Uncertainty and Psychological Distress Among Family Caregivers of Patients With Delirium in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-Sectional Survey Haji Assa, A. Cao, X. Boehm, L. M. Umberger, R. A. Carter, M. A. Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2024

Adult, Humans, Caregivers, Cross-Sectional Studies, Uncertainty, Intensive Care Units, Family/psychology, Psychological Distress Delirium, Stress, Psychological

Effects of liposomal bupivacaine in preoperative fascia iliac block on postoperative pain and delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery: a study protocol for a randomised, parallel controlled prospective clinical study Hao, Y. Li, W. Zheng, M. Li, X. Wu, X. Yu, Z. Liu, S. Li, J. Xu, H. BMJ Open 2024

Aged, Humans, Prospective Studies, China, Hip Fractures/surgery
Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy/prevention & control, Anesthetics,, Local/therapeutic use, Bupivacaine/therapeutic use, Delirium/etiology/prevention & control, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Anaesthetics, Hip, Neurology

Delirium Prevention in Early Rehabilitation During Acute Hospitalization and Implementation of Programs Specifically Tailored to Older Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Scoping Review with Meta-Analysis Hauer, K. Dutzi, I. Werner, C. Bauer, J. Ullrich, P. J Alzheimers Dis 2024

Humans, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Delirium/prevention & control/epidemiology
Hospitalization, Cognitive Dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, delirium, dementia, early rehabilitation, prevention, scoping review, vascular dementia

Association Between Preoperative Long-Term Poor Sleep Quality and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Multi-Center Observational Study Huang, Z. Huang, C. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Shi, L. Am Surg 2024

Postoperative delirium, cardiac surgery, elderly patients, preoperative sleep quality, sleep disorders

Ishibashi, Y. Sogawa, R. Ogata, K. Matsuoka, A. Yamada, H. Murakawa-Hirachi, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Monji, A. Shimanoe, C. Association Between Antidiabetic Drugs and Delirium: A Study Based on the Adverse Drug Event Reporting Database in Japan Clin Drug Investig 2024

Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects, Japan/epidemiology, Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced/drug therapy/epidemiology, Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions, Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects, Insulin, Delirium/chemically induced/epidemiology, Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems

Gene networks for use in metabolomic data analysis of blood plasma from patients with postoperative delirium Ivanisenko, V. A. Basov, N. V. Makarova, A. A. Venzel, A. S. Rogachev, A. D. Demenkov, P. S. Ivanisenko, T. V. Kleshchev, M. A. Gaisler, E. V. Moroz, G. B. Plesko, V. V. Sotnikova, Y. S. Patrushev, Y. V. Lomivorotov, V. V. Kolchanov, N. A. Pokrovsky, A. G Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2023

ANDSystem, Lc-ms/ms, biomarkers, cardiac surgery, gene networks, lipidomics, metabolomics, postoperative delirium, sphingolipids

Serum neurofilament light and postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery: a preplanned secondary analysis of a prospective observational study Khalifa, C. Robert, A. Cappe, M. Lemaire, G. Tircoveanu, R. Dehon, V. Ivanoiu, A. Piérard, S. de Kerchove, L. Jacobs Sariyar, A. Teunissen, C. E. Momeni, M. Anesthesiology 2024

delirium, postoperative, cognitive function, serum neurofilament, cardiac surgery

Differential effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on frontal intraoperative electroencephalogram dynamics associated with postoperative delirium Kim, Y. S. Kim, J. Park, S. Kim, K. N. Ha, Y. Yi, S. Shin, D. A. Kuh, S. U. Lee, C. K. Koo, B. N. Kim, S. E. J Clin Anesth 2024

Humans, Aged, Sevoflurane/adverse effects, Desflurane/adverse effects, Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects, Emergence Delirium/chemically induced, Isoflurane/adverse effects, Methyl Ethers/adverse effects, Electroencephalography, Delirium, Desflurane, Electroencephalogram, Prefrontal connectivity, Sevoflurane

Machine learning methods for developing a predictive model of the incidence of delirium in cardiac intensive care units Ko, R. E. Lee, J. Kim, S. Ahn, J. H. Na, S. J. Yang, J. H. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2024

Cardiac intensive care unit, Delirium prediction, Machine learning, Risk model

Target flow deviations on the cardiopulmonary bypass cause postoperative delirium in cardiothoracic surgery-a retrospective study evaluating temporal fluctuations of perfusion data Krefting, J. Gorki, H. Hoenicka, M. Albrecht, G. Kraft, R. Liebold, A. Interdiscip Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2024

Algorithm-based data processing, Cardiac surgery, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Postoperative delirium, Target flow deviations

Comparative evaluation of intraoperative dexmedetomidine versus lidocaine for reducing postoperative cognitive decline in the elderly: a prospective randomized controlled trial Kurup, M. T. Sarkar, S. Verma, R. Bhatia, R. Khanna, P. Maitra, S. Anand, R. Ray, B. R. Singh, A. K. Deepak, K. K. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2023

Aged, Humans, Anesthetics, Inhalation, Delirium, Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6, Lidocaine/therapeutic use, Postoperative Cognitive Complications/prevention & control, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology/prevention & control, Prospective Studies, Middle,, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, dexmedetomidine, elderly, lidocaine, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, abdominal surgery

The effectiveness of preoperative delirium prevention in intermediate to high-risk older surgical patients: A systematic review Lay, N. Foley, P. Allen, J. J Clin Nurs 2024

older adults, older surgical patients, preoperative delirium prevention, systematic review

Predictive Value of the Duke Anesthesia Resistance Scale in Postoperative Delirium among Elderly Patients with Hip Fractures Lei, Z. Zhang, L. Yang, J. Ye, L. Xia, L. Altern Ther Health Med 2024

postoperative delirium, elderly, hip fracture, anesthesia resistance, delirium

A machine learning-based prediction model for postoperative delirium in cardiac valve surgery using electronic health records Li, Q. Li, J. Chen, J. Zhao, X. Zhuang, J. Zhong, G. Song, Y. Lei, L. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium, Electronic Health Records, Bayes Theorem, Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Heart Valves, Machine Learning, Cardiac valve surgery, Postoperative delirium, Prediction model, Random Forest Classifier

Promising Effects of Montelukast for Critically Ill Asthma Patients via a Reduction in Delirium Li, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, S. Yang, G. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2024

critical illness, delirium, leukotriene, montelukast

Is there a difference between preoperative and postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients?: A retrospective case control study Lim, C. Roh, Y. H. Park, Y. G. Lee, J. Nam, K. W. Medicine (Baltimore) 2024

Aged, Humans, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Case-Control Studies, Hip Fractures/complications/surgery, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology, Risk Factors

Effect of esketamine on postoperative analgesia and postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery Liu, J. Wang, T. Song, J. Cao, L. BMC Anesthesiol 2024

Humans, Aged, Sufentanil, Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy/chemically induced, Emergence Delirium/drug therapy, Digestive System Surgical Procedures, Interleukin-6, Analgesia, Patient-Controlled, Anti-Inflammatory, Agents/therapeutic use, Analgesics, Opioid, Ketamine, Anti-inflammatory, Esketamine, Postoperative analgesia, Postoperative delirium

Association between human blood metabolome and the risk of delirium: a Mendelian Randomization study Long, C. Lin, D. Zhang, L. Lin, Y. Yao, Q. Zhang, G. Li, L. Liu, H. Ying, J. Wang, X. Hua, F. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023

Humans, Aged, Cholesterol, LDL, Risk Factors, Mendelian Randomization, Analysis/methods, Genome-Wide Association Study/methods, Sphingomyelins, Delirium/genetics, Mendelian Randomization, delirium, genome-wide association study, metabolites, phenotype-wide study

Association of postoperative delirium with serum and cerebrospinal fluid proteomic profiles: a prospective cohort study in older hip fracture patients Lozano-Vicario, L. Muñoz-Vázquez Á, J. Ramírez-Vélez, R. Galbete-Jiménez, A. Fernández-Irigoyen, J. Santamaría, E. Cedeno-Veloz, B. A. Zambom-Ferraresi, F. Van Munster, B. C. Ortiz-Gómez, J. R. Hidalgo-Ovejero Á, M. Romero-Ortuno, R. Izquierdo, Geroscience 2024

Biomarkers, Cxcl9, Cognitive impairment, Delirium, Hip fracture, Neuroinflammation

Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis Lu, S. Jiang, Y. Meng, F. Xie, X. Wang, D. Su, Y. J Cardiothorac Surg 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium, Risk Factors, Aortic Dissection/surgery, Renal Insufficiency, Azides, Deoxyglucose/*analogs & derivatives, Aortic dissection, Delirium, Meta-analysis, Risk factor

Exploring patients' and families' preferences for auditory stimulation in ICU delirium prevention: A qualitative study Ma, Y. Cui, N. Guo, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2024

critical care, Delirium, Intensive care units, Qualitative research

Development of Machine Learning Prediction Models for Self-Extubation After Delirium Using Emergency Department Data Matsumoto, K. Nohara, Y. Sakaguchi, M. Takayama, Y. Yamashita, T. Soejima, H. Nakashima, N. Stud Health Technol Inform 2024

Humans, Airway Extubation, Emergency Service, Hospital, Machine Learning, Restraint, Physical, Delirium/diagnosis, delirium, self-extubation after delirium

Risk factors, preventive interventions, overlapping symptoms, and clinical measures of delirium in elderly patients Mei, X. Liu, Y. H. Han, Y. Q. Zheng, C. Y. World J Psychiatry 2023

Clinical practice, delirium, Preventive interventions, Research progress, Review, Risk factors

Preoperative prognostic nutritional index value as a predictive factor for postoperative delirium in older adult patients with hip fractures: a secondary analysis Mi, X. Jia, Y. Song, Y. Liu, K. Liu, T. Han, D. Yang, N. Wang, G. Guo, X. Yuan, Y. Li, Z. BMC Geriatr 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutrition Assessment, Emergence Delirium, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Cohort Studies, Postoperative Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Hip Fractures/complications/epidemiology/surgery, Risk Factors, Hip fracture, Nutritional status, Older adult patients, Postoperative delirium, Prognostic nutritional index

Long-term outcomes with haloperidol versus placebo in acutely admitted adult ICU patients with delirium Mortensen, C. B. Andersen-Ranberg, N. C. Poulsen, L. M. Granholm, A. Rasmussen, B. S. Kjær, M. N. Lange, T. Ebdrup, B. H. Collet, M. O. Andreasen, A. S. Bestle, M. H. Uslu, B. Pedersen, H. S. Nielsen, L. G. Hästbacka, J. Jensen, T. B. Damgaard, K. Somme Intensive Care Med 2024

Adult, Humans, Delirium/drug therapy, Haloperidol/therapeutic use, Hospitalization, Intensive Care Units, Quality of Life
Delirium, Health-related quality of life, Icu, Long-term outcomes, Mortality, Treatment

Association of sleep quality on the night of operative day with postoperative delirium in elderly patients: A prospective cohort study Ou-Yang, C. L. Ma, L. B. Wu, X. D. Ma, Y. L. Liu, Y. H. Tong, L. Li, H. Lou, J. S. Cao, J. B. Mi, W. D. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2024

Aged, Humans, Male, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiovascular Infections/complications, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Emergence Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Postoperative, Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Sleep Quality, Stroke, Female

Multicentre implementation of a quality improvement initiative to reduce delirium in adult intensive care units: An interrupted time series analysis Owen, V. S. Sinnadurai, S. Morrissey, J. Colaco, H. Wickson, P. Dyjur, D. Redlich, M. O'Neill, B. Zygun, D. A. Doig, C. J. Harris, J. Zuege, D. J. Stelfox, H. T. Faris, P. D. Fiest, K. M. Niven, D. J. J Crit Care 2024

Critical care, Delirium, Implementation science, Interrupted time series analysis, Patient care bundles

Preoperative mild cognitive impairment as a risk factor of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery Park, S. Kim, J. Ha, Y. Kim, K. N. Yi, S. Koo, B. N. Front Aging Neurosci 2024

aged, cognitive dysfunction, delirium, neurocognitive disorders, perioperative care, postoperative cognitive complications

Association of preoperative blood glucose level with delirium after non-cardiac surgery in diabetic patients Park, S. J. Oh, A. R. Lee, J. H. Yang, K. Park, J. Korean J Anesthesiol 2024

Acute hyperglycemia, Chronic hyperglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Mortality, Non-cardiac surgery, Postoperative delirium

Delirium detection tools show varying completion rates and positive score rates when used at scale in routine practice in general hospital settings: A systematic review Penfold, R. S. Squires, C. Angus, A. Shenkin, S. D. Ibitoye, T. Tieges, Z. Neufeld, K. J. Avelino-Silva, T. J. Davis, D. Anand, A. Duckworth, A. D. Guthrie, B. MacLullich, A. M. J. J Am Geriatr Soc 2024

delirium, detection, geriatric assessment, hospitals, older people, routine data, systematic review

EEG biomarkers from anesthesia induction to identify vulnerable patients at risk for postoperative delirium Pollak, M. Leroy, S. Röhr, V. Brown, E. N. Spies, C. Koch, S. Anesthesiology 2024

delirium, EEG, anesthesia, postoperative delirium, propofol

The prognosis of delirium in older outpatients Quispel-Aggenbach, D. W. Zuidema, S. U. Luijendijk, H. J. Psychogeriatrics 2024

delirium, elderly, older patient, prevalence, prognosis, risk factors

Association of Postoperative Delirium With Incident Dementia and Graft Outcomes Among Kidney Transplant Recipients Ruck, J. M. Chu, N. M. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Chen, Y. Mathur, A. Carlson, M. C. Crews, D. C. Chodosh, J. Segev, D. L. McAdams-DeMarco, M. Transplantation 2024

Humans, United States/epidemiology, Aged, Middle Aged, Kidney, Transplantation/adverse effects, Emergence Delirium/complications, Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis/surgery/complications, Risk Factors, Transplant Recipients, Dementia/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Graft Survival

Irreversible postoperative cognitive impairment after unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment in the elderly Sakurada, K. Ikedo, T. Hosokawa, Y. Sugasawa, S. Shimonaga, K. Kushi, Y. Niwa, A. Ozaki, S. Hattori, E. Y. Hamano, E. Yamada, K. Imamura, H. Mori, H. Iihara, K. Kataoka, H. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2024

Aged, Humans, Middle Aged, Postoperative Cognitive Complications, Intracranial Aneurysm, Retrospective Studies, Cognition, Executive Function, Delirium, Older patient, Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, Postoperative cognitive recovery, Unruptured intracranial aneurysm

Random forest algorithm for predicting postoperative delirium in older patients Sheng, W. Tang, X. Hu, X. Liu, P. Liu, L. Miao, H. Wang, D. Li, T. Front Neurol 2023

confusion matrix, older patient, partial dependence graph, postoperative delirium, random forest

Role of supplemental regional blocks on postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction after major non-cardiac surgeries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Singh, N. P. Makkar, J. K. Borle, A. Singh, P. M. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2024

Adult, Humans, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Anesthesia, Conduction, Analgesia/methods, Delirium, Postoperative Cognitive, Complications/diagnosis/prevention & control, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Pain, Postoperative, Treatment Outcome, analgesia

Early postoperative neurocognitive complications in elderly patients: comparing those with and without preexisting mild cognitive impairment- a prospective study Somnuke, P. Srishewachart, P. Jiraphorncharas, C. Khempetch, A. Weeranithan, J. Suraarunsumrit, P. Srinonprasert, V. Siriussawakul, A. BMC Geriatr 2024

Aged, Humans, Prospective Studies, Postoperative, Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Cognitive, Dysfunction/diagnosis/epidemiology, Emergence Delirium, Postoperative Cognitive Complications/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Elderly, Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), Postoperative delirium (POD)

Prediction models for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with machine-learning algorithms and SHapley Additive exPlanations Song, Y. Zhang, D. Wang, Q. Liu, Y. Chen, K. Sun, J. Shi, L. Li, B. Yang, X. Mi, W. Cao, J. Transl Psychiatry 2024

Aged, Humans, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Algorithms, Hip Fractures/surgery, Machine Learning

Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative delirium in aged patients after surgery: A matched cohort study Song, Y. X. Wang, Q. Ma, Y. L. Chen, K. S. Liu, M. Zhou, X. F. Zhao, H. Lou, J. S. Li, H. Liu, Y. H. Mi, W. D. Cao, J. B. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutrition Assessment, Emergence Delirium, Retrospective Studies, Prognosis, Cohort Studies, Nutritional Status, Aged patients, Biomarker, Postoperative delirium, Prognostic nutritional index

Investigating the correlation of delirium after cardiac surgery with memories and posttraumatic stress disorder consequences of intensive care unit: A prospective cohort study Su, L. J. Chen, M. J. Yang, R. Zou, H. Chen, T. T. Li, S. L. Xin, H. N. Hu, R. F. Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2024

Cardiac surgery, Delirium, Intensive care unit, Memory, Posttraumatic stress disorder

Effect of Delirium on Interhospital Transfer Outcomes Thomas, M. K. Kalivas, B. Zhang, J. Marsden, J. Mauldin, P. D. Moran, W. P. Hunt, K. Heincelman, M. South Med J 2024

Adult, Humans, Retrospective Studies, Patient Transfer, Hospitalization, Length of Stay, Hospital Mortality, Delirium/epidemiology, Emergency Service, Hospital

Impaired glucose utilization in the brain of patients with delirium following hip fracture Titlestad, I. Watne, L. O. Caplan, G. A. McCann, A. Ueland, P. M. Neerland, B. E. Myrstad, M. Halaas, N. B. Pollmann, C. T. Henjum, K. Ranhoff, A. H. Solberg, L. B. Figved, W. Cunningham, C. Giil, L. M. Brain 2024

Humans, Aged, 80 and over, Glucose/metabolism, Acetoacetates
3-Hydroxybutyric Acid, Delirium, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Hip Fractures/complications/surgery, Brain/diagnostic imaging/metabolism, Lactates, Amino Acids, Branched-Chain, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, acetoacetate, branched-chain amino acids, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate

Types, predictors, and consequences of medicines related problems (MRPs) in frail older adults admitted to hospital from primary care - A retrospective cohort study Ude-Okeleke, R. C. Aslanpour, Z. Dhillon, S. Berry, R. Bines, E. Umaru, N. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm 2024

Delirium, Deterioration, Frailty, Hospitalization, MRPs, Older people, Primary care

Development and Usability Testing of a Mobile App-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Delirium: Randomized Crossover Trial Wang, J. Ji, M. Han, Y. Wu, Y. JMIR Aging 2024

Humans, Aged, Delirium/diagnosis, Cross-Over Studies, Mobile Applications, Decision Support Systems, Clinical, User-Centered Design, User-Computer, Interface, Reproducibility of Results, 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for Confusion Assessment Method-Defined Delirium, 3d-cam, clinical decision, support system, delirium, nurse, older adults

Risk factors for dementia in older intensive care unit (ICU) survivors Wang, S. Perkins, A. J. Chi, R. Yates, B. A. Khan, S. H. Gao, S. Boustani, M. Khan, B. A. Alzheimers Dement 2024

Humans, Female, Aged, Middle Aged, Male, Delirium/epidemiology/etiology, Prospective Studies, Intensive Care Units, Risk Factors, Stroke/complications, Dementia/epidemiology/complications, Survivors, Alzheimer’s disease, critical illness, delirium, dementia, depression, intensive care unit, stroke

Geriatric nutritional risk index independently predicts delirium in older patients in intensive care units: A multicenter cohort study Wei, F. Cheng, H. He, R. Yang, X. Hu, Z. Lyu, J. Wang, Y. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2024

Humans, Aged, Nutritional Status, Malnutrition/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology, Nutrition Assessment
Cohort Studies, Intensive Care Units, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/complications, Geriatric, Assessment/methods, Risk Factors, Delirium, Electronic medical records, Geriatric nutritional risk index, Intensive care unit, Malnutrition, Older adults

The RAPID-score: Risk Assessment and PredIction of Delirium in acute stroke patients based on very early clinical parameters Wischmann, J. Kremer, P. Hinske, L. Tomasi, R. Becker-Pennrich, A. S. Kellert, L. Front Neurol 2023

acute stroke, delirium, intensive care unit, post-stroke delirium, prediction score, stroke unit

Assessing patterns of delirium symptoms reveals a novel subtype among elective surgical patients with postoperative delirium Yang, L. Do, Q. Zhu, X. Leung, J. M. Sands, L. P. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2024

Humans, Emergence Delirium/complications, Delirium/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology, Postoperative, Complications/epidemiology, Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis, Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Risk Factors, aging, delirium subtypes, elective surgery, postoperative delirium